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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

A robust LinkedIn presence is crucial to any job search. You know that. Your manager knows that. And your manager probably knows that you know that – so she'll be concerned when you go from having a bare-bones profile on Monday to one jacked with additional work history, new connections, status updates and recommendations by Friday. "Don't go from zero to 500 overnight, because that can be quite obvious," Foss cautions。

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8.保持微笑,处分是我支持的队伍丢掉了比赛。
泰晤士高等教育世界大学排名的编辑菲尔·巴蒂说,“学校的全球发展前景是一个名牌大学的重要标志之一。顶尖大学聘请来自世界各地的教师,吸引来自全球有极高天分的学生,并能与所有的一流专业合作——不管是哪个国家的。”
When she consults managers, Kay says many of them suspect something is fishy when their employees stop talking to them as often, whether it's to give an update, ask for an opinion or just say hello. As Kay puts it: "You're not doing the things you normally would have to keep the relationship going."

Stand: Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer defended work-from-home ban
Yes, they hedge on the timing but the ticking time bombs are loud, close. And 'the precious-metals crash, starting in April of 2013, was the first warning of what is coming globally.'
Jobs for photographers grew by about 22 percent in Q3. The report’s authors attribute the increase to employers “finally understanding the importance of high-quality pictures on their landing pages.” The desire to expand and improve websites through employing trained, creative professionals was something of a recurring theme throughout this list.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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单词tunnel 联想记忆:
在3月2号,北韩政府网站我们民族之间警告北韩将对任何气球投放展开"炮弹和导弹的攻击,而不只是几下枪击"。
9) I would rather keep people at a distance 0 1 2 3 4

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

我经常心情不好
About 980 million yuan of illicit assets were recovered, according to the Communist Party of China Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.
This summer, Noel will enter restricted free agency expecting to be compensated handsomely given his demonstrated defensive impact, untapped potential and lottery pick pedigree, even though he's logged fewer than 5,000 minutes during his career.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • “十二五”期间,中国货物出口年均增长6.5%,占全球的份额从2010年的10.4%提升到2015年的13.2%,速度明显快于全球其他主要经济体。而服务贸易年均增长超过13.6%,位居世界第二。
  • 2015年“中国管业十大品牌”获奖名单公布
  • 美国有540位富豪入选,是世界上最多的国家。中国和德国则分别有251人和120人入选,分列二、三位。
  • 陶企淡季营销告急 营销保卫战一触即发
  • 政府工作报告为何不提“房住不炒”?住建部长回应:风向没变
  • 高部长称,目前全国商品交易市场已经超过8万家,社会消费品零售总额在年底预计达到30万亿元,而消费对GDP的贡献接近60%。
    After China hawk Steve Bannon’s exit there was a temptation to proclaim the death of the Trump White House’s economic nationalism. But that ignored the presence of Donald Trump, who is instinctually a protectionist. He wants “tariffs” rather than deals when it comes to China, as we’ve learned in recent days. He also sees cracking down on China as key to keeping his “America First” promise to his base.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 爱屋吉屋拿钱后经纪人玩失踪 骗租客签约拒退费, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

东莞开发商争抢本地客源 商业公寓成“香饽饽”

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

中共中央政治局:落实好一城一策、因城施策、城市政府主体责任的长效调控机制

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 与亨特相反,在《钢琴课》中与亨特联合主演的安娜·帕奎因(Anna Paquin),她的小金人似乎居无定所,游荡在她装袜子的抽屉和放靴子的地板之间。
    该学院还在国际课程体验方面排名第二。在最新的毕业生当中,逾五分之四的人有过国外实习经历,逾一半学员有过在另一个国家学习超过一个月的经历。
  • After her legal travails , anything Kesha released would have a veneer of triumph. But this comeback set was an artistic warrior cry more potent than any might've expected.
    什么温度的葡萄酒最好喝(图)
    ['heivn]
    一些深受喜爱的电视剧角色就像老朋友一样存在于我们的生活中,并对我们产生翻天覆地的影响。我们为之捧腹大笑,也为之潸然泪下,甚至不惜撒谎请假,只为能够端坐在电视机前得知他们的最新进展。自始至终,我们对他们如痴如醉。但是还有很多东西是观众无法从银幕上得知的,比如隐藏在这些电视剧中的小秘密。下面就是一些受人追捧的电视剧的幕后故事。
    ['?kjurit]

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 定制家具如何进行服务升级
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 租赁企业:不涨租金拿出12万套存量房源

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

5. “In Jackson Heights” The latest from the brilliant Frederick Wiseman has a three-hour-plus running time; maybe this explains why once again the dunderheads at the Academy didn’t put him in contention.
If there are nine or 10 best picture nominees, it could grab a spot. Jordan Peele's screenplay looks certain to be recognized.
平均工作经验:11年
出口的提振在很大程度上源自对美出口,其价值自3月份以来首次出现同比增长,同比增6.9%,至368亿美元。在其他出口目的地中,对欧盟出口同比增长5.1%,至299亿美元,对日本出口同比增长3.2%,至122亿美元。
I want to be in your arms this New Year.我要在你的怀抱里度过今年的春节。
Last year, the CPI increase peaked at 2.5 percent in January, and later fluctuated below 2 percent during the rest of the year.
该项目的另一个好处在于,它鼓励了职业灵活性,让年轻人对曲折的职业道路有所准备,而后者可能在现代职场中是必不可少的。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

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  • 2018北京秋季房展9月13日北展开幕 改善型产品占主流
  • Since merged airlines often continue to report delay statistics separately, it may take a few years to see how the new American does during holiday travel.
    [in'fekn]
  • 香港上半年房地产投资额增150%
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 美国总统唐纳德特朗普(Donald Trump)的零和博弈、“交易艺术”谈判方式,将给那些守旧的现任领导人带来安慰。我希望2018年将提供机会,让正气的、解决问题的新领导人涌现出来。但如果企业领导人因为政治领导层没水平而灰心,变得因循守旧,那么变革可能陷入停滞。
    Cheryl Boone Isaacs, Academy President
  • 3. Jeonju, South Korea-Hundreds of traditional Korean houses remain in central Jeonju's Hanok village.
    Remember, no one is ever perfectly prepared for every situation. You’ve probably discovered this by now. Your education gave you a foundation for the job, but growth happens in the trenches. Maybe you motivated your team not just to meet the new deadline, but to deliver extraordinary work. Perhaps you realized you had more poise than you ever expected in a client situation. Or, you suddenly discovered that you can capitalize on the relationships you’ve built and become a “rainmaker” for your organization. Before you can learn any of these things, you have to learn to say “Yes.” It’s okay to acknowledge the butterflies in your stomach; however, it’s not okay to let them stifle your growth.
  • The studio says it has taken the step because the boy declined to remove a YouTube video he published which promoted how to use the software.
    adj. 优雅的,精美的,俊美的
  • [kɑ:st]
    Perhaps just as important, stable or falling prices will boost the inflation-adjusted pay of U.S. workers and gives them more bang for their buck. "It's an unambiguous positive for household demand," said Neil Dutta, head of economics at Renaissance Macro Research. "People will have more money to spend."
    At least one model of the next iPhone is expected to feature image-capture technology that can sense depth, and track faces and expressions. A range of new emojis include monkeys and robots, whose animated expressions can mirror the iPhone user’s face as Apple battles for users’ attention with the likes of Facebook and Snapchat.
  • “…was snervous she almost fainted.”
    迪皮卡 帕度柯妮
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 融资渠道持续收紧 房企加速转型谋突围 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

哈尔滨市重拳治理商品房市场乱象

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

2017年LED产业的几种发展趋势预测

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

甲醛检测门道多:设备动手脚很简单 当面也能作假

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

沪指跌破3000点 两市成交额达11841亿元

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • The Belty is great that it uses technology to track fitness, water intake, and posture, but for $395, you might be better off getting the same in a stylish smart watch or activity tracker.
  • 然而,时间较长似乎并不代表学业较轻松。要保持学习劲头,合理的时间管理至关重要。英国华威商学院的一名毕业生谈到:“几个必修项目会帮助你跟上进度并避免在最后阶段非常紧张。”总的来说,2012级毕业生花了两年半多一点的时间完成学业。
  • 楼市冲击建材市场 济南卖场四年缩水40万平

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 有些纽约人就像讨厌房东一样讨厌邻居。合作公寓和共管公寓的管委会要小心了:你们也好不到哪去。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 金球奖的独特之处在于其同时设置电影和电视奖项。而当地时间周日的这场典礼更是前所未有地模糊了二者的界限,大大褒奖了电视领域这一年来的出众表现。现已剧终的热门电视剧集《绝命毒师》(Breaking Bad)今年首次拿下金球奖,赢得了当晚最热烈的欢呼声。该片荣获剧情类最佳系列剧集奖,片中演员布赖恩?克兰斯顿(Bryan Cranston)荣获剧情类系列剧最佳男演员。
    The need to rebuild supersedes the desire to not give Boston another great pick. That hole has already been dug. Time to crawl out the only way you can: slowly, through smart draft picks, trades, and signings.
    Walker places sixth thanks to Fast & Furious 6, the biggest hit of his career. He had finished shooting much of Fast & Furious 7 before the tragic car accident that took his life. Word is Universal won’t reshoot the film and will work around the actor’s death.
  • 6. Bubloon

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Beijing targets consumer prices inflation at 3.5 per cent, but weakening growth is keeping prices benign.
  • 共谋发展新机遇 鲅鱼圈城市发展论坛圆满举行
  • Hua Xu Yin

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 专家:房市从北上广深的牛市将变成三四线的牛市
  • Household substance abuse
  • 标杆房企市场优势凸现 行业集中度提升加速
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

海南违规填海项目已双暂停 涉及房产销售宣传暂停

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 国内上市家居企业上半年业绩喜人
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 重磅!北京发布人才住房新政:供应政策房 不限户籍
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

silicon

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

据牛津经济研究院(Oxford Economics)估算,若剔除价格影响,中国10月进口量同比降幅为2.6%。
adj. 投影的,投射 v. 投射(project的过去
随后,学生们将饮水机移动到教师办公室,之后老师便报了警。
西蒙接受本刊采访时说:“聘用老兵是我们做出的最好的决定之一。我们在阵亡将士纪念日推出了‘欢迎回家’计划,至今我们已经聘用了超过2.6万名老兵,让我们倍感骄傲。老兵在面对压力时表现一贯优秀,而且有服务热情,这些因素让我们很容易兑现聘用老兵、学习老兵和支持老兵的承诺。”
Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump can look forward to a presidential salary of $400,000 if they win in November.
The best bosses understand that there must be a balance between the company or client’s needs and the needs of his or her employees. The best bosses are willing to listen and talk about any issues an employee may be having because they understand that a happy employee is a more productive employee。
10.Meditate
But we are going to get a taste of the new world order when the WTO’s members gather for its biennial ministerial in Buenos Aires in December. It’s unclear, as always, if the WTO will be able to deliver anything of substance. But the real test lies in not having the US leading the way in discussions for the first time in the WTO’s life. Will China step in? The EU? And will India be as minded to block any deal as it has been in the past?
答:我的一些作品也来到了美国,自己的作品能够在这里收到喜爱,对此我感到非常的开心和荣幸。
你的老板有望学会使用Twitter

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

上海楼市年底成交缩量 二手压力转至中介调整

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • The United Kingdom ranks No. 3 overall. It ranks No. 4 in Power and No. 5 in Cultural Influence.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Analysts survey by Bloomberg expected a rise to 1.9 per cent in January.
  • 中山最牛违建:顶层“空中别墅” 加建80平方米
  • 4.Ask Questions
  • 欧司朗CEO提议拓展通用LED照明市场 遭西门子抨击
  • Making the cut for the first time, Gigi, 22, and Bella Hadid, 21, are ranked at number five and number nine respectively, with the former making $9.5 million and the younger sibling taking in $6 million.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 长三角楼市新年延续火热 专家隐忧地产“泡沫”
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 科比·布莱恩特
  • 其他专利申请活跃的中国企业还包括中兴、阿里巴巴、小米、比亚迪和海尔,这些中企均在欧洲迅速扩张。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

家具卖场打造自有品牌 比徒有虚名更实在

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